QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE VARIATION OF PLUMAGE COLOURATION IN Dinopium FLAMEBACK COMPLEX OF SRI LANKA

S.P. FERNANDO, S.S. SENEVIRATNE

Abstract


Dinopium benghalense is one of the five species currently recognized in the old-world woodpecker genus Dinopium, which includes six subspecies or races. Sri Lanka had two subspecies of D. benghalense; D. b. jaffnense (Golden-back Woodpecker) and D. b. psarodes (Red-backed Woodpecker). D. b. jaffenese is distributed in northern parts while the latter was in southern parts of the island. In the current world checklist of Bird life International, the D. b. psarodes has been elevated to a full species level; D. psarodes based on its plumage. Many colour variations can be observed within these Sri Lankan forms.  Facial patterns and mantle colour are the key identification pointers, though actual intensity of the gold, yellows and red varies individually, making a detailed study of plumage an interesting undertaking for both the amateur birder and for the ornithologists alike. Here we document and validated basic plumage patterns and colour shown by the Sri Lankan Dinopium flamebacks. Seventy woodpeckers along a 430 km transect spanning across the island and 55 museum specimens were sampled. We evaluated 21 colour–based characters: Colour analyses were based on Munsell colour charts. We found scarlet, red, orange, golden yellow and olive-yellow forms in Dinopium complex in Sri Lanka. A clinal gradation is observed from North to South in these colour patterns.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Andersson, M. (1994). Sexual selection. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA.

Ali, S. and S.D. Ripley (1983). Hand book of birds of India and Pakistan, together with those of Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan and Sri Lanka. Oxford University Press, London.

Baker, E.C.S. (1927). The fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma, Vol, 4, Taylor and Francis, London.

de Silva, K.M., P.S. Dodangoda and S.S. Seneviratne (2014). A peculiar biogeographic history for a flameback woodpecker revealed through high throughput sequencing. 51st meeting of the Association of Tropical Biology and

Conservation, Cairns, Queensland, Australia.

del Hoyo, J., N.J. Collar, D.A. Christie, A. Elliott and L.D.C. Fishpool (2014). HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions, Barcelone, Spain. Fernando S.P. and S.S. Seneviratne (2014). Local adaptations and distance away from the Indian mainland had contributed towards endemism in Dinopium Flamebacks in Sri Lanka. 4th Student Conference on Conservation Science, Bangalore, India (available online: http://www.sccs-bng.org/2014/ abstracts/158)

Freed, L.A., D. Warakagoda, R.L. Cann, U. Sirivardana and U. Hettige (2015). A hybrid swarm of Dinopium woodpeckers in Sri Lanka. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 127:13-20.

Gill, F. and D. Donsker (2014). IOC World Bird List (Version 4.4). doi : 10.14344/IOC.ML.4.4. Gorman, G. (2014). Woodpeckers of the world: the complete guide, Christopher Helm, London.

Henry, G.M. (1971). A Guide to the Birds of Ceylon, 2nd ed, Oxford University Press, London. Lamsfuss, G. (2013). Some comments on the Ceylon golden-back and red backed woodpeckers, Ceylon Birds Club Notes, May:106-116.

Legge, W.V. (1880). A history of the birds of Ceylon. Tisara Prakasakayo, Dehiwala, Sri Lanka.

Munsell (1976). Munsell book of color. Munsell color company. Munsell/Macbeth/kollmorgan corp. Price, T. (2008). Speciation in birds. Roberts & Company, Greenwood Village, CO, USA. Philips, W.W.A. (1953). Nests and eggs of Ceylon birds (Picidae and capitonidae). Ceylon journal of Science, Vol. XXV.

Prum, R.O., A.M. LaFountain, J. Berro, M.C. Stoddard and H.A. Frank (2012).

Molecular diversity, metabolic transformation, and evolution of carotenoid feather pigments in cotingas (Aves:

Cotingidae). Journal of Comparative Physiology B, 182: 1095-1116.

Rasmussen, P.C. and J.C. Anderton (2012). Birds of South Asia, The Ripley Guide. Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, Washington D.C. and Michigan State University and Lynx Edicions. Barcelona, Spain. The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World. Online available: www.birds.cornell. edu/clementschecklist/2014-overview

Tobias, J.A., N. Seddon, C.N. Spottiswoode, J.D. Pilgrim, L.D.C Fishpool and N.J. Collar (2010). Quantitative criteria for species delimitation. Ibis. 152:724–746.

Wait, W.E. (1931). Manual of the Birds of Ceylon, 2nd ed. Dulau & Co. Ltd. London. Whister, H. (1944). The avifaunal survey of Ceylon conducted jointly by the British and Colombo Museums. Spolia Zeylanica. 23

Whitfield, D.P. (1987). Plumage variability, status signaling and individual recognition in avian flocks. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 2:13-18.

Wijesinghe, D.P. (1995). Distribution of woodpeckers in Sri Lanka, Ceylon Birds Club Notes, June:58-64.

Winkler, H., D.A. Christie and D. Nurney (1995). Woodpeckers: An Identification Guide to the Woodpeckers of the World. Houghton Mifflin Company, New York, USA


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.